The best way to learn what’s new in any technology is to compare with its earlier version. Here will be understanding the difference between ASP.NET Core MVC and ASP.NET MVC 5 by creating sample application and comparing project solution structure between them.
Well we have many difference(s) between ASP.NET Core MVC and ASP.NET MVC 5 in solution structure itself, lets explore them without code been written.
ASP.NET Core is a lean and composable framework for building web and cloud applications. ASP.NET Core is fully open source.
Being fully open source is not easy task, Microsoft has done some amazing work on making it work across Windows, Mac, Linux OS. ScottGu’s blog on Introducing ASP.NET 5 is excellent reading to understand its features.
Quick look of ASP.NET Core improvements
- Build and run cross-platform ASP.NET apps on Windows, Mac and Linux
- Built on .NET Core, which supports true side-by-side app versioning
- New tooling that simplifies modern Web development
- Single aligned web stack for MVC and Web API
- Cloud-ready environment-based configuration
- Integrated support for creating and using NuGet packages
- Built-in support for dependency injection
- Ability to host on IIS or self-host in your own process
Difference between ASP.NET Core MVC and ASP.NET MVC 5 in 10 points
Firstly create ASP.NET Core MVC application and ASP.NET MVC 5 using Visual Studio 2015 Community Edition against .NET Framework 6.
Difference 1 – Single aligned web stack for ASP.NET Core MVC and Web APIs
ASP.NET MVC 5 will give us option of choosing MVC or Web API or both while creating web application. It was because web stack for MVC 5 and Web API was not the same.
ASP.NET Core MVC now has single aligned web stack for MVC and Web API. Image below shows check box are GREYED out for MVC and Web API while MVC 5 gives option to add Web API.
Difference 2 – Project(Solution) Structure Changes
If you see ASP.NET Core MVC solution explorer on right hand side, there is no Web.config, Global.asax. Then how it deals with configuration settings, authentication and application start specific code execution.
Project.json, appsettings.json are some files which does those work of missing files from ASP.NET MVC 5. There are many changes if we look at folder by folder.
Difference 3 – ASP.NET Core MVC targets Full .NET and .NET Core
We have being working on full .NET framework, it is amazing experience till now and will continue to be. Then what is .NET core?
.NET Core is a general purpose development platform maintained by Microsoft and the .NET community on GitHub. It is cross-platform, supporting Windows, macOS and Linux, and can be used in device, cloud, and embedded/IoT scenarios
Oh cross-platform !! Yes, now we can develop ASP.NET Core web apps against .NET core and run in either Windows or Linux or Mac. Take a quick look at image
Wait it’s not over yet, not only we can develop in Windows OS but also in Linux, Mac using Visual Studio Code or any other code editors like Vim, Atom, Sublime
Difference 4 – ASP.NET Core apps doesn’t need IIS for hosting
Don’t get surprised, the goal of ASP.NET Core is to be cross-platform using .NET core framework. With this in mind Microsoft decided to host ASP.NET Core applications not only on IIS but they can be self hosted or use nginx web server on linux. Kestrel will be internal web server for request processing
Difference 5 – wwwroot is now place for static files
The wwwroot folder represents the actual root of the web app when running on a web server. Static files like config.json, which are not in wwwroot will never be accessible, and there is no need to create special rules to block access to sensitive files.
In addition to the security benefits, the wwwroot folder also simplifies common tasks like bundling and minification, which can now be more easily incorporated into a standard build process and automated using tools like Grunt.
“wwwroot” name can be changed in project.json under “webroot”: “Demowwwroot”
Difference 6 – New approach to Server side and client side dependency management of packages.
Any .NET developer would be familiar that References folder holds all DLLs, Nuget packages for particular .NET Framework, While in ASP.NET Core development in Visual Studio we can target DNX 4.5.1 and DNX Core 5.0.
Leverage the experience of working in Visual Studio IDE and deploy ASP.NET 5 applications either in Windows, Linux or Mac using .NET Core. Its Server side management of dependencies.
Client side package management in open source community has two great names “Bower” and “NPM”. They are part of “Dependencies”.
Difference 7 – Server side packages save space in ASP.NET Core
We have being using NuGet package manager to add reference to assemblies, library, framework or any third party packages. They would have being downloaded from NuGet which creates “Packages” folder in project structure.
30 sample ASP.NET Core applications, all of them use NuGet packages to reference dependencies each costly approx 70 MB disk space, so we end up nearly using 2GB disk space for storing packages even though they all are same.
Some SMART developers know this issue, they have some work around of their own.
ASP.NET Core came up with storing all the packages related to its development in Users folder and while creating ASP.NET Core applications, Visual Studio will reference them from Users folder.
Now even if you have 100 sample ASP.NET 5 applications, they all are referencing from dotnet in Users folder which is near to 400 MB as of now.
Difference 8 – Inbuilt Dependency Injection (DI) support for ASP.NET Core
Dependency Injection (DI) achieves loosely coupled, more testable code, its very important because its kind of coding standard.
In ASP.NET MVC 5/4 or classic ASPX based applications, we use to have separate DI containers used like Unity, AutoFac, StructureMap etc,. We had to build up our project to use DI, its additional effort.
Now in ASP.NET Core applications, dependency injection is inbuilt i.e. no setup headache for DI. Just create some services and get ready to use DI.
Infact sample Core MVC application has DI inbuilt in it, lets open “Startup.cs” and look for “ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)” method. Its main purpose is configuration of services like EF, Authentication, adding MVC and hand written custom services like IEmailServer and ISmsSender.
Difference 9 – User Secrets of ASP.NET Core
Many times we keep sensitive data during our development work inside project tree, often we mistaken share these secrets with other through sharing of code, accidentally adding it TFS (source control). Once in while we might have experienced this.
ASP.NET Core based applications have now concept of User Secrets; if we look at “project.json” file, we see that “userSecretsId” is present and Secret Manager tool uses this id to generate user secrets.
The Secret Manager tool provides a more general mechanism to store sensitive data for development work outside
of your project tree.
The Secret Manager tool does not encrypt the stored secrets and should not be treated as a trusted store. It is for development purposes only.
There are many differences compared to ASP.NET MVC 5/4 but without writing single of code if we can find these differences then it means Microsoft has moved much ahead in terms of making it Open Source.